Ricardo Martins

Interior mutability in Rust: what, why, how?

Rust is like doing parkour while suspended on strings & wearing protective gear. Yes, it will sometimes look a little ridiculous, but you’ll be able to do all sorts of cool moves without hurting yourself. – llogiq on reddit

Key takeaways

  • Interior mutability is when you have an immutable reference (&T) but you can mutate the destination
  • It’s useful when you need mutable fields inside immutable data structures
  • std::cell::Cell<T> and std::cell::RefCell<T> can be used to achieve interior mutability
  • Cell wraps Copy values and doesn’t have borrow checking
  • RefCell wraps any kind of value, has run-time borrow checking, and requires “locking” with borrow or borrow_mut, which give you an immutable or mutable reference, respectively
  • Neither are safe to be directly used in a multi-threaded environment. Use Mutex or RwLock instead.

This article is part of a series about interior mutability in Rust. You can read part 2 here and part 3 here.


Sometimes data structures need to mutate one or more of their fields even when they are declared immutable. This may sound surprising at first, but you’ve probably relied on this behavior before, like when you clone a reference counted wrapper such as Rc, or when you lock a Mutex. However, in Rust, mutability is an all-or-nothing attribute: either a variable is declared as mutable and all of its fields are also mutable (if it is a struct), or it’s declared immutable and so are all of its fields. How do we get selective field mutability? Something mysterious is afoot.

Have you ever wondered how Rc is implemented? Let’s have a try! A naive first solution would be something like the following:

struct NaiveRc<T> {
    reference_count: usize,
    inner_value: T,

impl Clone for NaiveRc<T> {
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        self.reference_count += 1;
        // ...

You probably spotted the problem right away: clone takes a read-only reference to self, so the reference count can’t be updated! Dang it.

We could implement a special, differently-named cloning function that takes &mut self, but that is awful for usability (because it defies the convention of simply checking if a type implements Clone), and forces the user of our API to always declare mutable instances of that type. We also know that the reference counted wrappers in the standard library (std::rc::Rc and std::sync::Arc) don’t rely on that solution, which suggests there’s another way.

So, how did they solve this problem in Rc and Arc? Does the standard library rely on some sort of specially nasty magic? Not at all!

This is an instance of interior mutability, and the Rust language provides you with tools to easily and cleanly solve this sort of situation.


Interior mutability is a concept that many programmers new to Rust have never come across before or haven’t had to explicitly think about. It’s also more visible in Rust than in most other programming languages because we have to think about the mutability or not of variables and function arguments. This is even more evident when we look at immutable vs. mutable as shared vs. exclusive access to objects. The unspoken heuristic is that avoiding mutability when possible is good.

And yet, in some cases you need a few mutable fields in data structures, whether they’re mutable or not. Interior mutability gives you that additional flexibility and allows you to hide implementation details from the user of your API, while preserving (some measure of) access safety.

To explain what interior mutability is, it’s better to step back a little and start with something you’re familiar about: exterior mutability.

Exterior mutability is the sort of mutability you get from mutable references (&mut T). The type of declaration, &T or &mut T, makes it clear if you’re free to update a variable or call mutating methods on objects. Exterior mutability is checked and enforced at compile-time, as you know:

struct Foo { x: u32 };

let foo = Foo { x: 1 };
// The borrow checker will complain about this and abort compilation
foo.x = 2;

let mut bar = Foo { x: 1 };
// 'bar' is mutable, so you can change the content of any of its fields
bar.x = 2;

If you have an immutable reference, you can’t change the value. Conversely, because there is no field-level mutability in Rust, if you want to mutate a single field, you need to make the entire structure mutable, and that’s it. Or is it? Not so fast.

Interior mutability, in contrast, is when you have an immutable reference (i.e., &T) but you can mutate the data structure. As I mentioned before, that’s what happens when you clone an Rc or lock a Mutex (both Mutex::lock and Mutex::try_lock work in immutable instances).

A simple example will make the difference clearer. Suppose we have a simple structure like the following:

struct Point { x: i32, y: i32 }

An immutable Point can be seen as an immutable memory chunk, whose fields (sections of the memory chunk) can’t have their content changed at all. When you declare an immutable Point your hands are tied.

Consider now a slightly different, magically-enhanced MagicPoint:

struct MagicPoint { x: i32, y: Magic<i32> }
Representation of Point and MagicPoint

For now, ignore how Magic works, and think of it as a pointer to a mutable memory address, a new layer of indirection. Like previously, if you have an immutable MagicPoint, you can’t assign new values to any of its fields. However, in this case you don’t need to change the content of y, only the destination of that magical pointer, i.e., the other memory chunk, and that one is mutable!1

To be clear, even though the API for Magic will make it seem as if you’re relying on indirection to access and update the wrapped value, the memory representation of MagicPoint will actually be flat.

Note that when you rely on interior mutability, you are giving up the compile-time safety guarantees that exterior mutability gives you. As we’ll see next, it’s not that bad, provided you’re careful.


So, how can we get magical mutable pointers? Fortunately for us, the Rust standard library provides two wrappers, std::cell::Cell and std::cell::RefCell, that allow us to introduce interior mutability in externally immutable instances of data structures. With Cell<T> and RefCell<T> in our collective toolbelts, we can harness the power of interior mutability.

Both wrappers provide interior mutability and give up compile-time borrow checking on the inner value, but give different safety guarantees and serve different purposes. The most obvious difference between them is that RefCell makes run-time borrow checks, while Cell does not.

Cell is quite simple to use: you can read and write a Cell’s inner value by calling get or set on it. Since there are no compile-time or run-time checks, you do have to be careful to avoid some bugs the borrow checker would stop you from writing, such as accidentally overwriting the wrapped value:

use std::cell::Cell;

fn foo(cell: &Cell<u32>) {
    let value = cell.get();
    cell.set(value * 2);

fn main() {
    let cell = Cell::new(0);
    let value = cell.get();
    let new_value = cell.get() + 1;
    cell.set(new_value); // oops, we clobbered the work done by foo

In contrast, a RefCell requires you to call borrow or borrow_mut (immutable and mutable borrows) before using it, yielding a pointer to the value. Its borrow semantics are identical to externally mutable variables: you can have either a mutable borrow on the inner value or several immutable borrows, so the kind of bug I mentioned earlier is detected in run-time.

use std::cell::Cell;

struct NaiveRc<T> {
    inner_value: T,
    references: Cell<usize>,

impl<T> NaiveRc<T> {
    fn new(inner: T) -> Self {
        NaiveRc {
            inner_value: inner,
            references: Cell::new(1),

    fn references(&self) -> usize {

impl<T: Clone> Clone for NaiveRc<T> {
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        self.references.set(self.references.get() + 1);
        NaiveRc {
            inner_value: self.inner_value.clone(),
            references: self.references.clone(),

fn main() {
    let wrapped = NaiveRc::new("Hello!");
    println!("references before cloning: {:?}", wrapped.references());
    let wrapped_clone = wrapped.clone();
    println!("references after cloning: {:?}", wrapped.references());
    println!("clone references: {:?}", wrapped_clone.references());

Calling borrow or borrow_mut on a mutably borrowed RefCell will cause a panic, as will calling borrow_mut on a immutably borrowed value. This aspect makes RefCell unsuitable to be used in a parallel scenario; you should use a thread-safe type (like a Mutex or a RwLock, for example) instead.

A RefCell will stay “locked” until the pointer you received falls out of scope, so you might want to declare a new block scope (ie., { ... }) while working with the borrowed value, or even explicitly drop the borrowed value when you’re done with it, to avoid unpleasant surprises.

Another significant difference between Cell and RefCell is that Cell<T> requires that the inner value T implements Copy, while RefCell<T> has no such restriction. Often, you won’t want copy semantics on your wrapped types, so you’ll have to use RefCell.

Put succinctly, Cell has Copy semantics and provides values, while RefCell has move semantics and provides references.


There are a few general cases that call for interior mutability, such as:

  1. Introducing mutability inside of something immutable
  2. Mutating implementations of Clone
  3. Implementation details of logically immutable methods
  4. Mutating reference-counted variables

Introducing mutability inside of something immutable

Returning to the NaiveRc example in the introduction, reference-counting pointers, like Rc and Arc, need internal mutability. When you clone those pointers, the reference counter inside them has to be updated, whether they’re mutable or not. Without interior mutability, you would be forced to always use mutable pointers, which would allow mutation of the inner value and may be undesired.

For instance, consider the following naive reference counted wrapper:

use std::cell::Cell;

struct NaiveRc<'a, T: 'a> {
    inner_value: &'a T,
    references: Cell<usize>

let x = NaiveRc { inner_value: &1, references: Cell::new(1) };
x.references.set(2); // it works!
x.inner_value = &2;  // beep boop, x is immutable,
                     // you can't assign a new value to any of its fields!

Mutating implementations of Clone

Way back in the introduction, we noticed that cloning a reference-counted value (Rc<T>) needs to increment the reference counter. This is simply a special case of the previous point, but it deserves reiterating.

On the other hand, dropping such a value requires decrementing the reference counter, but drop works with mutable references (fn drop(&mut self)), so there’s no problem there.

Implementation details of logically immutable methods

For instance, you might want to amortize the running time of an expensive algorithm operating on your data structure by using a cache inside it. The cache must be able to be updated even when the data structure itself is immutable.

Mutating reference-counted variables

Suppose we need multiple references to some objects. For example, when connecting nodes in a graph. “Oh, that’s easy”, you think. “I’ll just wrap my nodes in Rc or Arc and call it a day”. That a perfectly reasonable line of though, and it would work… if you never, ever needed to mutate nodes. Once you try building the graph by incrementally adding and connecting nodes, the compiler will give you grief. Oh no, what is going on? Unfortunately for us, Rc preserves safety by only giving you shared (i.e., immutable) references when you call clone. Quoth the std::rc module documentation:

The Rc<T> type provides shared ownership of an immutable value. Destruction is deterministic, and will occur as soon as the last owner is gone.

You could call get_mut to receive an Option<&mut T>, but that would work only once: get_mut only returns a mutable reference as if there is only one “strong” reference to the value.2 Foiled again!

Fortunately, you can use interior mutability here: use Rc<Cell<T>> or Rc<RefCell<T>>. That way you can clone the reference-counted wrapper as much as you want and still modify the innermost value wrapped by Cell or RefCell.

You can see a first try at a solution in this example in the Rust Playground. As you can see, the problem is solved, but the solution is verbose and ugly. Not only that, the user of our API is aware of implementation details! What gives? Where’s the elegant abstraction I promised a few paragraphs above?

Now that you’ve seen and understood how this works, I can show you a cleaner version:

use std::cell::RefCell;
use std::rc::Rc;

// A graph can be represented in several ways. For the sake of illustrating how
// interior mutability works in practice, let's go with the simplest
// representation: a list of nodes.
// Each node has an inner value and a list of adjacent nodes it is connected to
// (through a directed edge).
// That list of adjacent nodes cannot be the exclusive owner of those nodes, or
// else each node would have at most one edge to another node and the graph
// couldn't also own these nodes.
// We need to wrap Node with a reference-counted box, such as Rc or Arc. We'll
// go with Rc, because this is a toy example.
// However, Rc<T> and Arc<T> enforce memory safety by only giving out shared
// (i.e., immutable) references to the wrapped object, and we need mutability to
// be able to connect nodes together.
// The solution for this problem is wrapping Node in either Cell or RefCell, to
// restore mutability. We're going to use RefCell because Node<T> doesn't
// implement Copy (we don't want to have independent copies of nodes!).

// Represents a reference to a node.
// This makes the code less repetitive to write and easier to read.
type NodeRef<T> = Rc<RefCell<_Node<T>>>;

// The private representation of a node.
struct _Node<T> {
    inner_value: T,
    adjacent: Vec<NodeRef<T>>,

// The public representation of a node, with some syntactic sugar.
struct Node<T>(NodeRef<T>);

impl<T> Node<T> {
    // Creates a new node with no edges.
    fn new(inner: T) -> Node<T> {
        let node = _Node { inner_value: inner, adjacent: vec![] };

    // Adds a directed edge from this node to other node.
    fn add_adjacent(&self, other: &Node<T>) {

struct Graph<T> {
    nodes: Vec<Node<T>>,

impl<T> Graph<T> {
    fn with_nodes(nodes: Vec<Node<T>>) -> Self {
        Graph { nodes: nodes }

fn main() {
    // Create some nodes
    let node_1 = Node::new(1);
    let node_2 = Node::new(2);
    let node_3 = Node::new(3);

    // Connect some of the nodes (with directed edges)

    // Add nodes to graph
    let graph = Graph::with_nodes(vec![node_1, node_2, node_3]);

    // Show every node in the graph and list their neighbors
    for node in graph.nodes.iter().map(|n| n.0.borrow()) {
        let value = node.inner_value;
        let neighbours = node.adjacent.iter()
            .map(|n| n.borrow().inner_value)
        println!("node ({}) is connected to: {:?}", value, neighbours);

If you ignore the loop that prints out the graph’s information, now the user doesn’t know how a Node is implemented. This version’s usability can still be improved by implementing the std::fmt::Debug trait for Node and Graph, for instance.

You can play with this example in the Rust Playground. Try changing some things yourself! I find breaking things helps me consolidate new knowledge. I suggest:

  1. Replacing RefCell with Cell
  2. Removing RefCell and using Rc<Node<T>>
  3. Removing Rc and using RefCell<Node<T>>

You could also try replacing Rc with Arc, but you wouldn’t notice anything different. Arc is a thread-safe version of Rc, which comes with a performance cost and doesn’t really make sense in single-threaded programs.

An alternative solution could involve wrapping the adjacent node vector in a RefCell instead of wrapping the node itself. That can also work, depending on what you intend to do, but it is semantically different from the previous solution, as you would be unable to mutate a node’s inner value in addition to its list of adjacent nodes.

Which to pick?

If RefCell can explode in your face and shouldn’t be used “raw” in a multi-threaded program, why bother using it?

While Cell is a good choice for many cases, there are a few reasons you might want to use RefCell:

  1. The wrapped value doesn’t implement Copy.
  2. Only RefCell has run-time checks. In some scenarios you’d rather kill the program than risk corrupting data.
  3. RefCell exposes pointers to the stored value, Cell doesn’t.

As a rule of thumb, choose Cell if your wrapped value implements Copy (such as primitive values, like integers and floats). If the wrapped value is a struct, doesn’t implement Copy or you need dynamically checked borrows, use RefCell instead.

Wrapping up

  Cell RefCell
Semantics Copy Move
Provides Values References
Panics? Never Mixed borrows or more than one mutable borrow
Use with Primitive types Structures or non-Copy types

The table above summarizes what you learned in this blog post.

I hope you found this article useful and/or interesting. As always, if you found a mistake or have any questions, please ping me on Twitter (@meqif) or send me an email (words@ricardomartins.cc). You can also join the discussion on reddit.

As Steve Klabnik, /u/critiqjo and /u/birkenfield kindly pointed out, Mutex and RwLock already have interior mutability, so there’s no need to put a Cell inside them. In multi-threaded scenarios you should use Mutex and RwLock without an additional Cell or RefCell.

/u/krdln suggested the alternative graph implementation above.

  1. If you are familiar with C and this reminds you of const pointers (whose value also can’t change but the content at the destination memory address can), you are in the right track. y would be something like a int *const

  2. I really don’t want to get into the strong and weak reference thing now. Suffice it to say that strong references stop objects from being destroyed, while weak references don’t.